DNS and Record Types: Understanding the Backbone of Internet Connectivity

When we visit web pages, our client devices actually communicate with IP addresses, which are a series of numbers and letters. However, memorizing these addresses can be difficult. This is where DNS comes into play. So, what is DNS and why is it important?

Posted by Saportif Technology on
DNS (Domain Name System) is a system used to identify and access computers, servers and other devices on the internet.
DNS makes internet addresses usable as human-understandable domain names, such as www.google.com. These domain names are converted to IP addresses for example,, which enables data transfer between devices on the internet.

What Are DNS Names ?

DNS names are a unique identifier for every website, server, computer and device on the internet. DNS names are often used in requests to resources on the Internet. DNS names have a hierarchical structure. This structure starts at the top level root DNS servers and goes down to top level domains (com, net, org, gov etc.). Each domain contains a series of subdomains separated by a period, followed by a top-level domain. For example, "www.example.com" is a DNS name. "www" is the subdomain and "example.com" is the top-level domain.

Also, each domain name is converted to an IP address. For example, the domain name "www.example.com" corresponds to an IP address such as "".

DNS names are very important for internet access. When Internet users want to access a website or server, they can use the DNS name without having to enter the IP address directly.

What Is DNS Server ?

DNS server (Domain Name System server) is a network component used to resolve domain names to IP addresses. DNS servers are special servers where DNS records are stored and respond to DNS requests. DNS servers play a critical role in ensuring that internet traffic is routed properly. Misconfigured DNS servers can cause a website to be inaccessible or misdirected. Therefore, properly configuring DNS servers is important for a website to navigate and function properly.

When a DNS server is requested by devices or users to resolve a domain name to its IP address, it finds the correct IP address using DNS records. A DNS server can store multiple DNS records and uses precedence to find the correct record for the queried domain. DNS servers can support different types of records used to provide DNS services. These record types are used to store a domain's IP address, email server, or other private DNS data.

What Is DNS Record Types ?

DNS record type is the type of records stored on a domain's DNS servers that contain information associated with that domain. DNS record types are used to store various information such as routing a domain name, IP address, email server information, SPF record, DKIM key, DMARC policies.

DNS record types are managed by DNS servers and can be set by domain owners, web hosting providers or DNS management services. Setting the correct DNS records is vital for a website to navigate and function properly.

DNS record types are different, such as A (Address), CNAME (Canonical Name), MX (Mail Exchange), NS (Name Server), PTR (Pointer), SOA (Start of Authority), SRV (Service), TXT (Text). may be species. Each record type serves a different purpose and is used by DNS servers to ensure proper routing of a domain name.
The basic record types in DNS are:
  • A (Address)
  • CNAME (Canonical Name)
  • MX (Mail Exchange)
  • NS (Name Server)
  • TXT (Text)

These record types are used to provide DNS services for a domain name. These record types play a critical role in the functioning of DNS and are important for proper routing of internet traffic.

A (Address)

The A record allows a domain name to be mapped directly to its IP address.

An A record specifies which IP address a domain has. This record provides the correct IP address that internet users can use to access the website. For example, the A record of the domain "www.example.com" could be mapped to an IP address such as "".

The A record is often used on websites as it allows a domain name to be mapped directly to its IP address. To access the website, users simply enter the website's domain name into their browser. The browser queries the A record of the domain name and gets the IP address of the website. The browser can then connect to the website with this IP address.

CNAME (Canonical Name)

The CNAME record allows one domain name to be mapped to another.

CNAME record maps one domain name to another domain name. For example, the CNAME record for the domain "www.example.com" can be matched to the domain "example.com". This will make "www.example.com" point to the same IP address as "example.com".

The CNAME record is often used in subdomains of a website. For example, a company might have subdomains "products.example.com", "services.example.com", and "support.example.com" for different pages on its website. These subdomains can be defined as a CNAME record of the "www.example.com" domain.

The CNAME record is different from an A (Address) record, where a domain name is directly assigned to its IP address. The CNAME record allows mapping a domain name to another name, while an A record allows mapping a domain name directly to an IP address.

MX (Mail Exchange)

The MX record provides a list of email servers used for a domain's email services.

An MX record contains the name and priority of a domain's email servers. For example, the MX record for the domain "example.com" can specify the names of email servers such as "mail.example.com" and "smtp.example.com" and which server takes precedence. This is used to determine which servers the email servers should be forwarded to when sending an email.

The MX record supports a domain name used for email services, as well as features such as mail forwarding, email filtering, and antispam protection. The MX record ensures that when an email is sent, the sending email server looks at the MX record of the recipient's domain name to direct the email sending to the correct email server.

NS (Name Server)

The NS record contains the names and IP addresses of the nameservers that provide DNS services for a domain.

An NS record specifies which nameservers a domain name will use. For example, the NS record for the domain "example.com" may contain the names and IP addresses of nameservers such as "ns1.example.com" and "ns2.example.com". This ensures that when a user tries to access the domain "example.com", the domain name servers are redirected to IP addresses.

The NS record can be used to change and control a domain's DNS management. By creating an NS record, a registrant can change the name servers that provide DNS services or switch to a different DNS provider.

TXT (Text)

The TXT record provides text-based data for a domain. This data usually includes SPF (Sender Policy Framework) record, DKIM (DomainKeys Identified Mail) key, DMARC (Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance) policies, or other custom text-based data.

A TXT record allows storing text-based data for a domain. For example, an SPF record is used to validate email sent with a domain name. This record determines from which e-mail servers an e-mail sender can send e-mail. The DKIM key is used to authenticate emails sent by a domain. This record is used to authenticate an email sender's email. DMARC policies are used to authenticate and report a domain's email messages. This record is used to notify an email recipient of the authenticity of an email sent by a domain.

The TXT record can be used to store custom text-based data for a domain, as well as SPF, DKIM, and DMARC policies.
DNS is an essential component that enables our internet connection and is one of the most important building blocks of the internet world. DNS keeps the internet running fast and securely. DNS servers direct internet traffic to find the IP addresses of websites. This depends on a DNS server querying by our browser when we want to access a website, finding that website's IP address and redirecting our request to the right place. DNS records contain the addresses of email servers, websites, and other internet services, as well as IP addresses. DNS uses these records to point to the correct servers and ensure that internet services work properly.